Did the Inklings influence one another? Was that influence extensive? One way to address that question is to see how much contact they had with one another’s writing prior to publication. The following list, compiled by David Bratman, contains published works by Inklings that are known to have been read by other Inklings prior to publication. This list is referred to on page 228 of The Company They Keep. Scholars will find additional bibliographic material pertinent to this study on David Bratman’s homepage, http://home.earthlink.net/~dbratman/inklings.html.
PUBLISHED WORKS KNOWN TO HAVE BEEN READ OR HEARD BY OTHER INKLINGS PRIOR TO PUBLICATION
Barfield, Owen. Poetic Diction: A Study in Meaning. London: Faber and Gwyer, Ltd. 1928. 2nd ed. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1984. Read by C. S. Lewis.
——. Saving the Appearances: A Study in Idolatry. London: Faber and Faber, 1957. Foreword acknowledges Lewis, among others, “all of whom have favoured me with thoughtful comments and practical suggestions, which I have used freely” (7).
——. “A Visit to Beatrice.” Seven: An Anglo-American Literary Review 9 (1988): 15-18. Poem sent by mail to the Inklings. Bennett, J. A. W. The Parlement of Foules: An Interpretation. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957. “I owe thanks to Professor C. S. Lewis and Mr. C. G. Hardie for several corrections and suggestions” (Preface v).
Cecil, Lord David. Two Quiet Lives: Dorothy Osborne, Thomas Gray. London: Constable, 1948. Read to the Inklings.
Coghill, Nevill. The Poet Chaucer. London: Oxford University Press, 1949. 2nd ed. London: Oxford University Press, 1967. Acknowledgements include to Gervase Mathew and H. V. D. Dyson (viii).
Dyson, H. V. D., and John Butt. Augustans and Romantics, 1689-1830. Introductions to English Literature 3. London: Cresset Press, 1940. Acknowledgment to “Mr. C. S. Lewis, for reading proofs and for very much else” (9).
Havard, Robert E. “Appendix (Note on the Observed Effects of Pain).” The Problem of Pain. By C. S. Lewis. London: Centenary Press, 1940. 143-45. Read to the Inklings.
Lewis, C. S. The Allegory of Love: A Study in Medieval Tradition. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1936. “The first chapter was read and commented upon by Mr. B. Macfarlane and Professor Tolkien so long ago that they have probably forgotten the labour, but I do not therefore forget the kindness. … The untiring intellect of Mr. H. Dyson of Reading, and the selfless use which he makes of it, are at once spur and bridle to all his friends” (Preface viii). He thanks Owen Barfield “above all” (viii). Pre-publication proofs read by Charles Williams.
——. “The Birth of Language.” As N. W. Punch 9 Jan. 1946: 32. Also in Poems. Ed. Walter Hooper. London: Bles, 1964. 10-11. Also in The Collected Poems of C. S. Lewis. Ed. Walter Hooper. London: HarperCollins, 1994. 24-25. Sent to Owen Barfield.
——. “Donkeys’ Delight.” As N. W. Punch 5 Nov. 1947: 442. Also in Poems. 29-31. Also in The Collected Poems of C. S. Lewis. 43-45. Read to the Inklings.
——. [as Clive Hamilton]. Dymer. London: Dent, 1926. Also in Narrative Poems. Ed. Walter Hooper. London: Bles, 1969. Read by Owen Barfield and Nevill Coghill.
——. English Literature in the Sixteenth Century, Excluding Drama. Oxford History of English Literature 3. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1954. As Poetry and Prose in the Sixteenth Century. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990. Acknowledgment to “Dr. J. A. W. Bennett and Mr. H. V. D. Dyson for advice and criticism” (Preface vi). Part read by John Wain.
——. “The English Prose ‘Morte’.” Essays on Malory. Ed. J. A. W. Bennett. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963. 7-28.
——. The Great Divorce: A Dream. London: Bles, 1945. Read to the Inklings.
____. “Le Roi s’amuse.” As N. W. Punch 1 Oct. 1947: 324. Rev. in Poems.
23-24. Also in Collected Poems. 37-38. Read to the Inklings.
——. The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe: A Story for Children. London: Bles, 1950. Read (in part) to J. R. R. Tolkien. Apparently read by Owen Barfield.
——. Miracles: A Preliminary Study. London: Bles, 1947. Probably read to the Inklings.
——. Out of the Silent Planet. London: Bodley Head, 1938. Read to the Inklings.
——. Perelandra: A Novel. London: Bodley Head, 1943. Read to the Inklings. ——. The Pilgrim’s Regress: An Allegorical Apology for Christianity, Reason and Romanticism. London: Dent, 1933. Read by J. R. R. Tolkien; proofs corrected by W. H. Lewis.
——. The Problem of Pain. London: Centenary Press, 1940. Read to the Inklings.
——. The Screwtape Letters. London: Bles, 1942. Read to the Inklings.
——. Surprised by Joy: The Shape of My Early Life. London: Bles, 1955. Read by Owen Barfield and Warren Lewis.
——. That Hideous Strength: A Modern Fairy-Tale for Grown-Ups. London: Bodley Head, 1945. Apparently read to the Inklings.
——. “To Mr Roy Campbell.” As Nat Whilk. Cherwell 6 May 1939: 35. Rev. as “To the Author of Flowering Rifle.” Poems. 65. Also in Collected Poems. 79. Read to the Inklings.
——. “The True Nature of Gnomes.” As N. W. Punch 16 Oct. 1946: 310. Also in Poems. 9-10. Also in Collected Poems. 23-24. Read to the Inklings.
Lewis, W. H. Assault on Olympus: The Rise of the House of Gramont between 1604 and 1678. London: Deutsch, 1958. “My thanks are due to my old friend Gervase Mathew, who was good enough to read my manuscript, and make some useful suggestions” (Foreword 8).
——. The Splendid Century: Some Aspects of French Life in the Reign of Louis XIV. London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1953. Read to the Inklings.
——. The Sunset of the Splendid Century: The Life and Times of Louis Auguste de Bourbon, duc du Maine, 1670-1736. London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1955. “I wish to express my gratitude … to my friend Gervase Mathew and to my brother Dr. C. S. Lewis for their patience in listening to several chapters of it in manuscript” (Foreword x).
Tolkien, J. R. R. “The Drowning of Anadûnê.” Sauron Defeated. Ed. Christopher Tolkien. London: HarperCollins, 1992. 331-440. Read to the Inklings. ——. “Errantry.” Poem. Oxford Magazine 9 Nov. 1933: 180. Also in The Adventures of Tom Bombadil. London: Allen and Unwin, 1962. 24-27. Read to the original Inklings.
——. “The Fall of Gondolin.” The Book of Lost Tales. Ed. Christopher Tolkien. Vol. 2. London: Allen and Unwin, 1984. 149-97. Read to the Exeter College Essay Club, Coghill and Dyson in attendance.
——. The Hobbit, or There and Back Again. London: Allen and Unwin, 1937. Read to Christopher Tolkien; read by C. S. Lewis.
——. “The Lay of Leithian.” The Lays of Beleriand. Ed. Christopher Tolkien. London: Allen and Unwin, 1985. 150-314. Includes commentary by C. S. Lewis.
——. The Lord of the Rings. 3 vols. Vol. 1, The Fellowship of the Ring. Vol. 2, The Two Towers. Vol. 3, The Return of the King. London: Allen and Unwin, 1954-55. “The Inklings … have already listened to it with a patience, and indeed with an interest, that almost leads me to suspect that they have hobbit-blood in their venerable ancestry” (Foreword, 1st ed. only. Also in The Peoples of Middle-earth 25). Parts mailed to Christopher Tolkien. One comment in manuscript attributed to Charles Williams.
——. “The Notion Club Papers.” Sauron Defeated. 145-327. Read to the Inklings.
——. “Our dear Charles Williams.” Poem. The Inklings. By Humphrey Carpenter. London: Allen and Unwin, 1978. 123-26. Read by Charles Williams and probably read to the Inklings.
Wain, John. Arnold Bennett. Columbia Essays on Modern Writers 23. New York: Columbia University Press, 1967. Also in Six Modern British Novelists. Ed. George Stade. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974. 1-42. Apparently read to the Inklings.
——. “In Memory of Henry Payne.” Oxford Magazine 25 Nov. 1948: 189. Also in Mixed Feelings. Reading: School of Art, University of Reading, 1951. Also in A Word Carved on a Sill. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1956. 27-28. Poem. Read to the Inklings.
Williams, Charles. All Hallows’ Eve. London: Faber and Faber, 1945. Read to the Inklings.
——. “The Figure of Arthur.” Arthurian Torso. Ed. C. S. Lewis. London: Oxford University Press, 1948. 3-90. “The first two chapters had been read aloud by the author to Professor Tolkien and myself” (Lewis, Introductory 2).
——. The Forgiveness of Sins. London: Bles, 1942. Read to the Inklings.
——. The House by the Stable. Seed of Adam and Other Plays. London: Oxford University Press, 1948. Also in Collected Plays. Ed. John Heath-Stubbs. London: Oxford University Press, 1963. 195-215. Read to the Inklings.
——. “The Noises That Weren’t There.” Mythlore 2.2 (whole no. 6, Autumn 1970): 17-21; 2.3 (whole no. 7, Winter 1971): 17-23; 2.4 (whole no. 8, Winter 1972): 21-25. Incomplete story. Read to the Inklings.
——. Terror of Light. Collected Plays. 325-74. Read to the Inklings.